Site Menu

Life-Charge Crystal Holy Products

Life-Charge Crystal Holy System for Immune,

Rejuvenation, Cognition and Anti-Aging.

Infused with 4 Biblical Herbs: Frankincense, Myrrh, Hyssop, and Saffron                 

Life-Charge Crystal Holy Water, Life-Charge Crystal Holy Mist and Life-Charge Crystal Holy Oil are natural gifts from God that help to sustain life and do wonders for those who partake. They are products of a divine download combining art, science, faith, nature, and the Creator's universal life force. Nurtured by Christian doctors, scientists, and ministers with many combined decades of scientific and theological expertise, Life-Charge Crystal Holy Water, Crystal Holy Mist and Crystal Holy Oil are now available for sale as the Crystal System.

Our Crystal Holy Water is administered in drops as a sublingual, liquid dietary supplement; our Crystal Holy Mist is discharged as a facial and body spray from an atomizer; and our Crystal Holy Oil is used as a salve and an herbal supplement.  You will find them to be progressively transformative products that aim to enhance mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual health by functioning as vehicles for God’s healing love when used in combination as the Crystal System.

Our Crystal System are made with diverse bio-frequencies, prayers, authentic Vogel crystals, sound, light, Tesla electromagnetism, and Bible herbs (frankincense, myrrh, saffron, and hyssop). This proprietary formula, infused into purified and structured water or oil, is carefully incubated in a solar device capable of harnessing the energy of light. Light is a self-propagating electromagnetic force carrying energy. 

This natural and renewing energy united with our diverse frequencies conducts a regenerating life-charge through the water and the oil that is then made available to the body's cells. This combination of divine wisdom, ancient biblical botanicals and modern scientific advancements allows our team to provide you with these unique and trusted products that charge your own body to recover and transform your health by renewing its life force.  

At Church of Holy Water, we understand the benefits that holistic supplements and topicals can contribute to a full and healthy life by supporting anti-aging cell renewal, illness recovery, immunity enhancement, and general health consistency. However, our Life-Charge Crystal System (our Crystal Holy Water, Crystal Holy Mist and Crystal Holy Oil infusions) go beyond the average holistic supplements or topicals by containing the healing touch of God known as life force.  Therefore, our Crystal System acts as a catalyst to rejuvenate your whole person: body, soul, and spirit.

Each bottle is charged with the healing love, light and energy of God that conveys the Lord’s passion for your total wellness and our commitment to provide you with a transformative system. This commitment is reflected in our slogan “Love + Light + Energy = Healing” and is further supported by our testimonials.

Our team of Christian naturopathic doctors, scientists and ministers is honored to introduce the Life-Charge Crystal Holy System because we believe these holy products will promote happier, healthier, and more fulfilled lives for our members.

“And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding from the throne of God and of the Lamb…on either side of the river was the tree of life…The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations” (Revelation 22:1-2).

Life-Charge Crystal Holy System™

is a Blessing of Divine Provision

“Let There Be Light”

About the Life-Charge Crystal Holy System (LCCHS): In the convergence of ancient wisdom and modern science, a remarkable narrative emerges—one that resonates with the timeless quest for longevity and the pursuit of the elusive secret for a long and healthy life. Both the sacred texts of the Bible, which depict lifespans of 120+ years, and the relentless pursuits of scientific exploration have cast a spotlight on the probability of extending human existence.

Billions of dollars are invested in the tireless pursuit of the fountain of youth, the lost holy grail, and the legendary tree of life, each promising the gift of immortality. This relentless search has been fueled by an innate human desire to transcend the limitations of mortality and reach for the infinite.

Within this intriguing narrative, the Church of Holy Water emerges as a harbinger of hope—the bearer of tangible and potentially transformative products known as the Life-Charge Crystal Holy System (Crystal Holy Water, Crystal Holy Oil, Crystal Holy Mist). The church offers a unique bridge between ancient spiritual wisdom and modern scientific understanding.

In this profound convergence of faith and science, we find ourselves on the cusp of an era where the boundaries of human potential may be redefined. While we tread carefully on this uncharted path, the quest for longevity and the thirst for the extension of a healthy life remain indomitable forces. This quest unites the spiritual and the scientific in a shared aspiration for a future where health, vitality, and the promise of a longer life are within reach.


Introducing the Life-Charge Crystal System, extraordinary products that embody the pinnacle of scientific advancements in the realm of general health support. This revolutionary Holy Water, Oil and Mist harness the power of groundbreaking discoveries to unlock the potential for youthful vitality and robust immune function.


Effects of the Life-Charge Crystal Holy System: Our process exhibits remarkable optical activity and possesses the unique capability to polarize, absorb, and store light. This extraordinary property enables the provision of highly concentrated energy readily accessible for the maintenance of essential energy levels critical to functionality.

As a result, these profound effects have given rise to terminologies like 'healthy-aging' and 'health-extension' to encapsulate the profound transformative potential of LCCHS.

Moreover, LCCHS’s potency is further enhanced by its exclusive proprietary blend, a meticulous compounding of elements. This blend features purified structured water, infused with a diverse array of energies derived from Bible herbs comprising Frankincense, Myrrh, Hyssop, and Saffron; Vogel crystals; Tesla electromagnetism; an orchestration of sound and light; and bio-frequencies encompassing Alpha, Beta, Theta, Gamma, and Delta waves.


Benefits of LCCHS: The concept of “LCCHS" combines the ideas of life engineering, life force and longevity (BioEnginevity). It proposes that by harnessing solar energy, it is possible to restore and rejuvenate body, spirit, and mind, allowing for your vital organs to be life-charged to live long and strong. Use the Life-Charge Crystal System to Charge Your Cells, Charge Your Immunity, Charge Your Mind, Charge Your Energy.


Transformative Influence of Life-Charge Crystal Holy System’s Bible Herbs: Backed by comprehensive research, LCCHS’s Bible herbs offer a wealth of benefits. These include regaining enduring energy, supporting heart health, enhancing mobility, soothing joint discomfort, promoting skin wellness, boosting vision, reducing inflammation, supporting blood pressure, preserving mental sharpness, and improving sleep quality. Furthermore, they contribute to digestion, organ detoxification, immune strength, and a lot more.. (See Exhibits).


Enhance Your Immune System's Power to Combat Health Issues: Your body is a magnificent self-healing creation with a robust immune system that defends against various health problems. Experience vitality at any age through the potential of a highly functional immune system. Life-Charge Crystal Holy System’s proprietary blend plays a crucial role in boosting your immune system effectively, allowing you to feel rejuvenated.


Unlock a Fresh Perspective on Life: Embark on a journey to renewal where your body's remarkable ability to heal itself is ignited. The Life-Charge Crystal Holy System, which comes from a divine download, can aid in revitalizing your vital organs. Anticipate a rejuvenated brain, heart, joints, arteries, digestion, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and lungs, all contributing to a feeling of being reborn. Empower your immune system to safeguard your health. As a result, you might notice a more youthful appearance than your age suggests. The concept of BioEnginevity, where the Life-Charge Crystal Holy System engineers longevity benefits, becomes synonymous with vibrant life force, offering a potent shield against health threats.


Witness Unparalleled Benefits: The Life-Charge Crystal Holy System boasts extraordinary capabilities, surpassing traditional antioxidants. This marvel of immune support significantly enhances various aspects of your well-being from heart health and energy levels to mental acuity and immune defense. Pain relief, improved circulation, and healthy aging effects are nothing short of remarkable.


Unveiling the Ultimate Health Extension Solution: Pathogens might lead to illness, but a robust immune system effectively wards them off. Enter our blessing of divine provision, a discovery that is truly exceptional. Reclaim the vitality and vigor reminiscent of your younger years. These youth-renewing products enable cellular rejuvenation supporting vibrant health well into advanced years.


Unveiling Radiant Skin: Uncover a smoother, more youthful complexion through LCCHS's innovative technology offering a radiant appearance you might not have imagined before.


Complete Health and Youthfulness: LCCHS's energizing benefits extend to arteries and circulation promoting head-to-toe blood flow enhancement among other advantages. Discover the comprehensive wellness and youthful vitality that this approach can offer.


Preserve the Fortress of Health: In addition, visualize your immune system as a protective fortress around each cell guarding the precious gift of vibrant health. By empowering your immune system, LCCHS actively supports this defense mechanism allowing you to anticipate life at its finest.


Experience unprecedented vitality: Invigorate your cells with light energy and bolster overall health by aiding cellular transport with nourishing compounds. This process is essential for cellular rejuvenation thwarting unhealthy cell division. Rejuvenate your body from within rebuilding health as the cornerstone.


Restoration through Nature's Bounty: These all-natural formulas reinvigorate your immune system restoring its critical function. Turn back the clock and effectively rejuvenate your overall health with the remarkable power of LCCHS. Energize your body, mind, and spirit.

Feel a surge of lasting energy and stamina that accompanies you throughout the day. Shield your energy cells from constant attacks and unleash their potential for cellular energy production. Counteract fatigue and increase vitality, all while safeguarding the intricate mitochondria within your cells.


A Gateway to a Wellspring of Lifelong Wellness: Harness the potential within your cells and activate a robust immune system to thrive. The focus is on revitalization and reinvigoration paving the way for a fulfilling and healthy life regardless of age.


Elevate Every Aspect of Your Well-being: Embrace each day with enthusiasm aiming for a life characterized by vitality and longevity. LCCHS holds the promise of transformation allowing you to feel rejuvenated and vibrant regardless of your current health status.


Rediscover Your Passion for Life: Rediscover vitality, alleviate stress, and rekindle your passions by detoxifying cells, promoting digestion, easing joint discomfort, supporting clear arteries, enhancing muscle flexibility, improving mental clarity, relieving nerve damage, and supporting lung function. Experience a comprehensive enhancement that encompasses your entire well-being.


Transformation You Deserve: Experience a remarkable shift as LCCHS empowers cellular repair mechanisms enhancing your body's strength and resilience.


Your Immune System's Depth: LCCHS focuses on nurturing a potent immune system unlocking its inherent power to safeguard your health. LCCHS enhances and supports the comprehensive aspects of the immune system not just in terms of the number of immune cells but also their functional quality, diversity and the overall resilience of the immune response. Here's a breakdown of what that depth entails:

Functional Quality: Improving how well each cell type performs its task such as how effectively T cells recognize and eliminate pathogens, or how well B cells produce antibodies.
• Diversity: Ensuring a wide range of immune cells capable of recognizing and responding to a variety of pathogens. This includes a rich repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors.

• Resilience: Building an immune system that can withstand various stressors whether they are infections, autoimmune conditions or the effects of aging.
• Regulation: Maintaining a balanced immune response that is strong enough to fight infections but regulated to prevent overreaction such as autoimmune disorders or allergies.

• Adaptability: Enhancing the immune system's ability to adapt to new threats including the capacity of memory cells to remember past infections for a faster response upon re-exposure.
• Communication: Improving the signaling and coordination between different cell types to ensure a swift and organized immune response.

• Integration: Ensuring that the immune system works in harmony with other systems in the body such as the nervous and endocrine systems.


Safety of LCCHS

Q: Is it safe to consume LCCHS regardless of your health condition?
A: Certainly. LCCHS products are highly safe; you can incorporate these supplements into your daily routine by following the instructions on the labels.\

Q: Will taking LCCHS interact with any medications I am currently using?
A: No, they do not interact with any medications; it does not interact with chemo or radiation; they are very safe. However, as a general precaution with all supplements, discontinue use 10 days before any scheduled surgery. You may resume taking them after the surgery.

Q: Can children safely consume them?

A: Yes, it is safe for children to start taking them from the age of 2 years onwards.

Q: Are they safe for use during pregnancy?
A: It is recommended to seek guidance from your healthcare provider if you are pregnant. You can consider resuming their use after childbirth and lactating.

Q: When is the optimal time to take Life-Charge Crystal Holy Water and Crystal Holy Oil - before, during, or after meals?
A: The best time is 15 minutes before meals on an empty stomach. Place 20 drops of each under your tongue separately for 2 minutes, then swallow. If you happen to forget to take them before meals, aim to do so 2 hours after your meal.

Q: Why is it recommended to keep the bottles of the LCCHS out in the open and not stored in the refrigerator?

A: We advise placing all Life-Charge Crystal Holy System products near a window but not in direct sunlight. This is because LCCHS products exhibit optical activity and possess a remarkable ability to polarize, absorb and store light. Being exposed to cosmic light helps maintain their unique life-charging properties.

Q: Why is it advised to wake up early to witness the sunrise and spend 15 minutes in sunlight each day when possible?
A: Watching the sunrise and spending time in sunlight after taking LCCHS offers a unique opportunity to absorb natural energy infused with God’s power, which resonates with our fundamental constitution. These sacred geometries, harnessed from the light’s rays, play a crucial role in facilitating superconductivity within our bodies effectively recharging our immune system with essential life force energy. This practice can contribute to a sense of vitality and well-being.

Q: Is there any additional information of which I should be aware?
A: Along with your LCCHS, we provide a protocol sheet that contains comprehensive guidance on how to support your body's self-healing journey aligning with both scientific principles and biblical wisdom. This resource is designed to assist you in maximizing the benefits of the LCCHS for your overall well-being.

© Copyright 2024 Church of Holy Water™ all rights reserved.



LCCHS's Research Studies on Ingredients




If you've heard of frankincense and myrrh, it's probably thanks to the biblical account of the birth of Jesus. According to the book of Matthew, Chapter 2, the Magi, or wise men, followed bright star in the east to Bethlehem, where Jesus had been born:

And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh (Matthew 2:11).


Both frankincense and myrrh are resins derived from tree sap. During ancient times, these aromatic resins were valuable commodities.  Frankincense is a milky white resin extracted from the Boswellia tree, or Frankincense tree, which thrives in arid, cool areas of the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and India.  Myrrh resin is a reddish color and comes from species of the genus Commiphora, which is native to northeast Africa and the adjacent areas of the Arabian Peninsula. Commiphora myrrha, a tree commonly used in the production of myrrh, grows best in the shallow, rocky soils of Ethiopia, Kenya, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Somalia. 

For thousands of years, people used frankincense and myrrh as medicine. In the Ebers papyrus of 1500 B.C.E., priests recommended both resins for treating wounds. Other ailments frankincense and myrrh reportedly cured include hemlock poisoning, leprosy, worms, snakebites, diarrhea,  plague, scurvy and even baldness.  Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic medicine have employed frankincense and myrrh for centuries, and scientists continue to explore new medicinal uses.  In China, Frankincense and Myrrh are often used together in clinic in order to obtain a synergistic effect for relieving pain and activating blood circulation, and especially to treat inflammatory diseases (e.g., RA).

 A 2016 study found frankincense was a good anti-inflammatory (which can help with pain relief), and a 2019 study suggests that frankincense and myrrh essential oils may have analgesic effects. The researchers of the latter study determined that when the two are combined, they have amazing anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer pharmacological effects, though they acknowledged more studies are needed to verify the synergistic efficacy. 

Specific information about the many health benefits of frankincense follows.   The health benefits of myrrh will be addressed in a separate section.



Boswellia trees and natural products derived from the trees have been used since antiquity for the treatment of chronic disease, inflammation, and infection. The identification of the bioactive components of frankincense will allow the characterization of the molecular and cellular basis for their therapeutic effects, and the incorporation of these compounds into products that could be marketed for use in treatment for cancer and inflammation and improvement of oral health.

This review highlights the chemical compounds (boswellic acids) isolated from Boswellia gum resins and their potential antimicrobial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The beneficial role of Boswellia gum resins in treating chronic diseases, such as colitis and bronchial asthma, in small studies including human patients, demonstrate the potential of frankincense for treatment in the clinical setting. However, more studies including a higher number of subjects and clinical trials are needed to confirm and expand our knowledge of the use of frankincense for treatment of chronic diseases.

Furthermore, this review discusses the antimicrobial effects of several active compounds of frankincense. Given the high cost of antibiotic therapy and the increase in antibiotic resistance, more research is needed on the potential antimicrobial effects of natural products. We focused on the most recent discoveries of the beneficial effects of frankincense compounds against oral pathogens, given the important connection between oral and systemic health.

Gum resin of Boswellia is included in the list of substances Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS), which allows its use as a food additive by the U.S. FDA. One could easily envision the incorporation of frankincense and some of its components such as BAs into mouthwashes and toothpaste, and into topical ointments for inflammatory disorders of the skin.

Boswellia trees and natural products derived from the trees have been used since antiquity for the treatment of chronic disease, inflammation, and infection. The identification of the bioactive components of frankincense will allow the characterization of the molecular and cellular basis for their therapeutic effects, and the incorporation of these compounds into products that could be marketed for use in treatment for cancer and inflammation and improvement of oral health.

This review highlights the chemical compounds (boswellic acids) isolated from Boswellia gum resins and their potential antimicrobial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The beneficial role of Boswellia gum resins in treating chronic diseases, such as colitis and bronchial asthma, in small studies including human patients, demonstrate the potential of frankincense for treatment in the clinical setting. However, more studies including a higher number of subjects and clinical trials are needed to confirm and expand our knowledge of the use of frankincense for treatment of chronic diseases.

Furthermore, this review discussed the antimicrobial effects of several active compounds of frankincense. Given the high cost of antibiotic therapy and the increase in antibiotic resistance, more research is needed on the potential antimicrobial effects of natural products. We focused on the most recent discoveries of the beneficial effects of frankincense compounds against oral pathogens, given the important connection between oral and systemic health.

Here are more specific details about the health benefits of the Bible herb known as frankincense: 


1. May reduce arthritis:

Frankincense has anti-inflammatory effects that may help reduce joint inflammation caused by arthritis.  Researchers believe that frankincense can prevent the release of leukotrienes, which are compounds that can cause inflammationTerpenes, including boswellic acid, appear to be the strongest anti-inflammatory compounds in frankincense.

In one 2014 study, both oral and topical boswellic acid reduced cartilage loss and joint lining inflammation in osteoarthritis in mice.  In humans, frankincense extract may help reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.  In one 2018 review, frankincense was consistently more effective than a placebo at reducing osteoarthritis pain and improving mobility.

However, the review noted that the quality of most studies was low and more research is needed.  In a subsequent study, participants took 169.33 mg of boswellia extract twice daily for 120 days. Results indicated that the supplement reduced inflammation, joint pain, and stiffness in mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis, without serious side effects.

Another study found that oliban oil, another name for frankincense, reduced osteoarthritis pain when applied to the skin for 6 weeks. However, participants’ ability to do daily activities or participate in sports didn’t show significant improvements.

Combinations of frankincense with other supplements may also be effective.  A 2018 study found that 350 mg curcuminoid and 150 mg boswellic acid supplement taken 3 times per day for 12 weeks was associated with reduced osteoarthritis pain. The combination was more effective than curcumin on its own or a placebo.

Similarly, taking a combination of 5 g of methylsulfonylmethane and 7.2 mg of boswellic acids daily for 60 days was more effective at improving pain and function than taking glucosamine sulfate, a standard supplement for osteoarthritis.

For rheumatoid arthritis, researchers induced arthritis in rats then treated them with 180 mg/kg of boswellia extract. They found that frankincense reduced inflammation but wasn’t as effective as standard medications.  Overall, more research is needed, particularly for rheumatoid arthritis.



Al-Yasiry AR, Kiczorowska B. Frankincense--therapeutic properties. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2016 Jan 4;70:380-91. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1200553. PMID: 27117114.

Here is the link to "Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review":

Here is the link to "Frankincense (乳香 Rǔ Xiāng; Boswellia Species): From the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Phytotherapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Serious Diseases":

Here is the link to "Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis":

Grover, A.K., Samson, S.E. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality. Nutr J 15, 1 (2015).

Here is the link to "Efficacy of curcumin and Boswellia for knee osteoarthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis":

Haroyan, A., Mukuchyan, V., Mkrtchyan, N. et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin and its combination with boswellic acid in osteoarthritis: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med 18, 7 (2018).

Notarnicola A, Maccagnano G, Moretti L, et al. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2016;29(1):140-146. doi:10.1177/0394632015622215

Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2019 Apr-Jun; 9(2): 100–106.

doi: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_248_18

Yu, G., Xiang, W., Zhang, T. et al. Effectiveness of Boswellia and Boswellia extract for osteoarthritis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Med Ther 20, 225 (2020).


2. May improve gut function:

Frankincense’s anti-inflammatory properties may also help your gut function properly. One 2017 study found that frankincense, in combination with other herbal medicines, reduced abdominal pain, bloating, and even associated depression and anxiety in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Another study also indicated that boswellia 250 mg tablets taken daily for 6 months improved symptoms in people with IBS.  This resin appears particularly effective at reducing symptoms of ulcerative colitis, one of the main inflammatory gut conditions.

A study found that boswellia extract taken daily for 4 weeks improved symptoms in people with mild ulcerative colitis in remission.  Boswellia extract also had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in rats with colitis. However,  most studies were small or not done in people. Therefore, more research is needed before strong conclusions can be made.



Kazemian A, Toghiani A, Shafiei K, Afshar H, Rafiei R, Memari M, Adibi P. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients. J Res Med Sci. 2017 Nov 28;22:120. doi: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_905_16. PMID: 29259631; PMCID: PMC5721494.

Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica 2019 March;65(1):30-5DOI: 10.23736/S1121-421X.18.02530-8 Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDIC   

Oral administration of a lecithin-based delivery form of boswellic acids (Casperome®) for the prevention of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized clinical study.

Pellegrini L, Milano E, Franceschi F, et al. Managing ulcerative colitis in remission phase: usefulness of Casperome®, an innovative lecithin-based delivery system of Boswellia serrata extract. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2016 Jun;20(12):2695-2700. PMID: 27383325.

Boswellia serrata has Beneficial Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties in a Model of Experimental Colitis

Renata Minuzzo Hartmann, Henrique Sarubbi Fillmann, Maria Isabel Morgan Martins, Luise Meurer, Norma Possa Marroni First published: 12 March 2014 Citations: 41


3. Improves asthma:

Traditional medicine has used frankincense to treat bronchitis and asthma for centuries. Research suggests that its compounds may prevent the production of leukotrienes, which cause the bronchial muscles to constrict in asthma.

Frankincense may also affect Th2 cytokines, which can cause inflammation and mucus overproduction in people with asthma.  In one small study, people who took a daily supplement of 500 mg boswellia extract in addition to their standard asthma treatment were able to take fewer inhalations of their regular medications during the 4-week study.

Additionally, when researchers gave people 200 mg of a supplement made from frankincense and the South Asian fruit bael (Aegle marmelos), they found that the supplement was more effective than a placebo at reducing asthma symptoms.  In another study, asthma symptoms in mice improved with boswellic acid, a component of frankincense resin.



See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Functional study on Boswellia phytosome as complementary intervention in asthmatic patients  Article in European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences · October 2015

European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences  2015; 19: 3757-3762

Functional study on Boswellia phytosome as complementary intervention in asthmatic patients. An example of traditional medicine used to treat asthma symptoms is Boswellia serrata extract, a preparation extracted from a tropical tree (Boswellia serrata) that contains triterpene compounds with anti-inflammatory properties used in asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases 11; 19: 3757-3762. T. FERRARA, G. DE VINCENTIIS, F. DI PIERRO. 

Liu Z, Liu X, Sang L, Liu H, Xu Q, Liu Z. Boswellic acid attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 via pSTAT6 inhibition in a murine model of asthma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Jan 1;8(1):236-43. PMID: 25755710; PMCID: PMC4348891.

Yugandhar P, Rao KM, Sengupta K. A novel herbal composition containing extracts of Boswellia serrata gum resin and Aegle marmelos fruit alleviates symptoms of asthma in a placebo controlled double-blind clinical study. Phytother Res. 2018 Jan;32(1):140-150. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5963. Epub 2017 Dec 6. PMID: 29210124.

Boswellic acid attenuates asthma phenotype by downregulation of GATA3 via inhibition of PSTAT6.  X. Zhou, J.G. Cai, W.W. Zhu, H.Y. Zhao, K. Wang and X.F. Zhang; Department of Pediatrics, Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan, China Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, China. // Genetics and Molecular Research: Mol. Res. 14 (3): 7463-7468 (2015);   DOI


4. Maintains oral health:

Frankincense may help improve oral hygiene and prevent gum disease.

The boswellic acids it provides appear to have strong antibacterial properties, which may help prevent and treat oral infections.  In one test-tube study, frankincense extract was effective against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a bacteria that causes aggressive gum disease.


In another very small study, participants chewed gum containing frankincense for 5 hours, with saliva samples indicating reduced numbers of microbes each hour. The authors suggested that frankincense may decrease sources of infection in the mouth. However, more research is needed on the effect of frankincense on oral health.


Here is the link to "Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review":

IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 13, Issue 4 Ver. I. (Apr. 2014), PP 77-82

The Effect of Using Frankincense (Boswellia sacra) Chewing Gum on the Microbial Contents of Buccal/Oral Cavity, Taif, KSA.    Dr. Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra; Luluah Mohammed R. Al-Masoudi. (Science College, Taif University, KSA)

Maraghehpour B, Khayamzadeh M, Najafi S, Kharazifard M. Traditionally used herbal medicines with antibacterial effect on Aggegatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Boswellia serrata and Nigella sativa. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2016 Nov-Dec;20(6):603-607. doi: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_12_17. PMID: 29238140; PMCID: PMC5713083


5. May have anti-cancer properties

Studies show that frankincense may have anticancer effects.

Test-tube studies suggest that the boswellic acids it contains might prevent cancer cells from spreading. 


A research review notes that boswellic acids may also prevent the formation of DNA in cancerous cells, which could help limit cancer growth.  So far, test-tube studies suggest that frankincense may fight breast, prostate, pancreatic, skin, and colon cancer cells.  It may also help reduce side effects of cancer treatment.

In one study of people being treated for brain tumors, 4,500 mg of boswellic acid extract taken each day helped reduce brain edema — an accumulation of fluid in the brain — while also lowering participants’ regular medication dose.  However, more research in humans is needed.


Here is the link to "Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review":

IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 13, Issue 4 Ver. I. (Apr. 2014), PP 77-82

The Effect of Using Frankincense (Boswellia sacra) Chewing Gum on the Microbial Contents of Buccal/Oral Cavity, Taif, KSA.    

Dr. Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra; Luluah Mohammed R. Al-Masoudi. (Science College, Taif University, KSA)

Maraghehpour B, Khayamzadeh M, Najafi S, Kharazifard M. Traditionally used herbal medicines with antibacterial effect on Aggegatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Boswellia serrata and Nigella sativa. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2016 Nov-Dec;20(6):603-607. doi: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_12_17. PMID: 29238140; PMCID: PMC5713083


6. Other potential benefits and references:

May help to prevent diabetes: Mahdian D, Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi K, Raoofi A, Dadashizadeh G, Abroudi M, Zarepour E, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of Boswellia species on the metabolic syndrome: A review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Nov;23(11):1374-1381. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.42115.9957. PMID: 33235693; PMCID: PMC7671425.

Mehrzadi S, Tavakolifar B, Huseini HF, Mosavat SH, Heydari M. The Effects of Boswellia serrata Gum Resin on the Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile of Diabetic Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X18772728. doi: 10.1177/2515690X18772728. PMID: 29774768; PMCID: PMC5960856.


May help to reduce stress, anxiety and depression:

Here is the link to "The effects of frankincense extract on depression and anxiety-like behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats":

The Effects of Frankincense Essential Oil on Stress in Rats.  Journal of Oleo Science

Shukan Okano, Yoshiko Honda, Tohru Kodama, Mayumi Kimura  2019 Volume 68 Issue 10 Pages 1003-1009. DOI


May help to prevent heart disease: 

Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Hamidpour M, Shahlari M. Frankincense ( rǔ xiāng; boswellia species): from the selection of traditional applications to the novel phytotherapy for the prevention and treatment of serious diseases. J Tradit Complement Med. 2013 Oct;3(4):221-6. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.119723. PMID: 24716181; PMCID: PMC3924999.

Zaki AA, Hashish NE, Amer MA, Lahloub MF. Cardioprotective and antioxidant effects of oleogum resin "Olibanum" from Bos Boswellia carteri Birdw. (Bursearceae). Chin J Nat Med. 2014 May;12(5):345-50. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(14)60042-X. PMID: 24856757.


May help to improve memory:

Beheshti S, Aghaie R. Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Jul-Aug;6(4):468-75. PMID: 27516988; PMCID: PMC4967843.

Hosseini-Sharifabad M, Kamali-Ardakani R, Hosseini-Sharifabad A. Beneficial effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on spatial learning and the dendritic tree of dentate gyrus granule cells in aged rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Mar-Apr;6(2):189-97. PMID: 27222832; PMCID: PMC4877965.


May help to balance hormones and reduces symptoms of PMS:

Shinohara K, Doi H, Kumagai C, Sawano E, Tarumi W. Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2017 Jan;37(8):567-572. PMID: 28326753.


May help in the treatment of a variety of illnesses with very minimal side effects:

Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Hamidpour M, Shahlari M. Frankincense ( rǔ xiāng; boswellia species): from the selection of traditional applications to the novel phytotherapy for the prevention and treatment of serious diseases. J Tradit Complement Med. 2013 Oct;3(4):221-6. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.119723. PMID: 24716181; PMCID: PMC3924999.


Here are some references with abstracts that provide helpful summaries:

Here is the link to "Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of frankincense: Targets, treatments and toxicities":

Here is the Abstract:

The oleogum resins of Boswellia species known as frankincense have been used for ages in traditional medicine in India, China and the Arabian world independent of its use for cultural and religious rituals in Europe. During the past two decades, scientific investigations provided mounting evidence for the therapeutic potential of frankincense. We conducted a systematic review on the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Boswellia species and their chemical ingredients (e.g. 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β boswellic acid, α- and β-boswellic acids, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and other boswellic acids, lupeolic acids, incensole, cembrenes, triterpenediol, tirucallic acids, and olibanumols). Frankincense acts by multiple mechanisms, e.g. by the inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, of cyclooxygenase 1/2 and 5-lipoxygenase, of oxidative stress, and by regulation of immune cells from the innate and acquired immune systems. Furthermore, frankincense modulates signaling transduction responsible for cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Clinical trials showed the efficacy of frankincense and its phytochemicals against osteoarthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, psoriasis and erythematous eczema, plaque-induced gingivitis and pain. Frankincense revealed beneficial effects towards brain tumor-related edema, but did not reduce glioma size. Even if there is no treatment effect on brain tumors itself, the management of glioma-associated edema may represent a desirable improvement. The therapeutic potential against other tumor types is still speculative. Experimental toxicology and clinical trials revealed only mild adverse side effects. More randomized clinical trials are required to estimate the full clinical potential of frankincense for cancer therapy.


Here is the link to the reference in Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine ISSN: 0032-5449 | E-ISSN: 1732-2693 | ICV: 151,25 | IF: 0.878 | MEiN: 40:  by Al-Yasiry AR, Kiczorowska B. 

Frankincense--therapeutic properties.   Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2016 Jan 4;70:380-91. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1200553. PMID: 27117114.

Here is the Abstract

Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%). The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis).





Myrrh, made famous in the Bible as a gift to the baby Jesus, is an amber-colored resin, harvested from small, thorny desert trees native to the Middle East and North Africa. It is highly valued in many religious traditions. Ancient Egyptians valued myrrh as an embalming agent and it was also used as an incense, in sacred anointing oils, and as an additive to wine. It is still valued today as a folk medicine for both humans and animals.

Myrrh (Commiphora molmol, C. abyssinica, or C. myrrha ) is a close relative and member of the Burseraceae family, native to the eastern Mediterranean, Ethiopia, the Arabian peninsula, and Somalia. Myrrh is a shrubby desert tree known variously as gum, myrrh tree, guggal gum, guggal resin, didin, and didthin. Myrrh is an Arabic word meaning bitter. The highly valued aromatic gum resin of myrrh has a bitter, pungent taste and a sweet, pleasing aroma. A particularly treasured variety of myrrh is known as karam or Turkish myrrh.

Myrrh grows to a height of about 9 ft (2.7 m). The light gray trunk is thick and the main branches are knotted with smaller branches protruding at a right angle and ending in sharp spines. The hairless, roughly toothed leaves are divided into one pair of small, oval leaflets with a larger, terminal leaflet. The yellow-red flowers grow on stalks in an elongated and branching cluster. The small brown fruit is oval, tapering to a point. Myrrh is the sweet-smelling oleo-gum resin that naturally exudes from wounds or cuts in the stems and bark of several species of this shrubby desert tree. This sap forms a thick, pale yellow paste as it seeps out. It then hardens into lumps about the size of walnuts called tears, taking on a reddish-brown color.

Myrrh has been used since ancient times in incense, perfumes, and holy ointments. The Egyptians used myrrh in embalming compounds and burned pellets of myrrh to repel fleas. Archeological evidence indicates that myrrh was carried in small pouches that wealthy persons hung around the neck for fragrance. The Ebers Papyrus, believed to have been found in the necropolis outside Thebes, provides evidence of Egyptian medicinal use of myrrh. This ancient document contains as many as 800 medicinal recipes using such plants as myrrh, peppermint, aloe, castor oil , and numerous other herbs in common use today. Myrrh was mentioned in the Bible as a component of the bitter solution offered to the crucified Jesus during Roman times. The herb was traditionally mixed with wine and offered to prisoners prior to execution to ease pain .

Myrrh was a highly valued commodity for commerce on ancient spice routes, and is woven into legend and myth. The use of myrrh medicinally was recorded in China in 600 C.E. during the

Tang Dynasty. Myrrh is used today in Chinese medicine to treat wounds, relieve painful swelling, and to treat menstrual pain due to blood stagnation. Myrrh is called mo yao in China. Myrrh has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, and today we are discovering why that is true.



Scientists are now testing the oil’s potential uses, including for pain, infections, and skin sores. Since antiquity, the genus Commiphora is composed of more than 200 species, and has been exploited as a natural drug to treat pain, skin infections, inflammatory conditions, diarrhea, and periodontal diseases. In more recent history, products derived from Commiphora myrrha and various other species of Commiphora are becoming recognized to possess significant antiseptic, anesthetic, and antitumor properties.

Traditional practice and evidence-based research have supported that these properties are directly attributable to terpenoids (especially furanosesquiterpenes), the active compounds present in myrrh essential oil. More recently, current studies have focused on applying clinical trial methodologies to validate its use as an antineoplastic, an antiparasitic agent, and as an adjunct in healing wounds. An important active ingredient in myrrh, sesquiterpenes, balance hormones, and provide endocrine support. Due to its effect on hormones and menstruation, women should not use this substance during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, as it can lead to complications and uterine bleeding.

The volatile oil contained in the resin consists of sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, and mucilage. The tannin content gives myrrh its astringent action. Powdered myrrh has been endorsed by the German advisory Commission E as a beneficial treatment for mild inflammations in the throat and mouth. Myrrh acts as a broad-spectrum antiseptic and can be applied directly to sores and wounds. It should not be used to treat fevers as it can have an adverse effect. Before adding this natural remedy to your health regimen, it is best to speak with your doctor about any potential complications or negative interactions.

Taken internally in tincture or capsule form, myrrh is a beneficial treatment for loose teeth, gingivitis, and bad breath. The tincture may also be applied directly to a tooth to relieve tooth ache. It is antifungal, and has been used to treat athlete's foot and candida. Some research indicates that myrrh is effective in reducing cholesterol levels. It is a tonic remedy said to relax smooth muscles, increase peristaltic action, and stimulate gastric secretions. The myrrh resin has antimicrobial properties and acts to stimulate macrophage activity in the blood stream.

This Bible herb is being studied for its potential as an anticancer medication. Taken internally in tincture or capsule form, myrrh is useful for relieving gastric distress and as an expectorant, though this folk application has not been confirmed by experimental evidence. Myrrh is burned as incense and used to repel mosquitoes. It is also a component in healing salves used in veterinary medicine.

Here are more specific details about the health benefits of the Bible herb known as myrrh:


1. Kills Harmful Bacteria:

Ancient Egyptians used myrrh and other essential oils to embalm mummies, as the oils not only provide a nice scent but also slow decay. Scientists now know this is because the oils kill bacteria and other microbes. Additionally, in Biblical times, myrrh incense — often in combination with frankincense — was burned in places of worship to help purify the air and prevent the spread of contagious diseases, including those caused by bacteria.

One recent study found that burning myrrh and frankincense incense reduced airborne bacterial counts by 68%. Preliminary animal research suggests that myrrh can directly kill bacteria, as well as stimulate the immune system to make more white blood cells, which also kill bacteria. Myrrh is also used for treating upper respiratory infections, like a cough or congestion, sore throat, and asthma.

In test-tube studies, myrrh oil has strong effects against several infectious bacteria, including some drug-resistant ones. In one test-tube study, myrrh oil at a low dilution of 0.1% killed all dormant Lyme disease bacteria, which can persist in some people after antibiotic treatment and continue to cause illness. Still, more studies are needed to determine whether myrrh oil can treat persistent Lyme infections.

Summary: Myrrh oil has been used to kill harmful bacteria long before scientists discovered that microbes cause contagious illnesses. It may have an impact on some drug-resistant and Lyme disease bacteria.


Buckley SA, Evershed RP. Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco- Roman mummies. Nature. 2001 Oct 25;413(6858):837-41. doi: 10.1038/35101588. PMID: 11677605.

Ljaljević Grbić M, Unković N, Dimkić I, Janaćković P, Gavrilović M, Stanojević O, Stupar M, Vujisić L, Jelikić A, Stanković S, Vukojević J. Frankincense and myrrh essential oils and burn incense fume against micro-inhabitants of sacral ambients. Wisdom of the ancients? J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jun 12;219:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.003. Epub 2018 Mar 9. PMID: 29530608.

Haffor AS. Effect of Commiphora molmol on leukocytes proliferation in relation to histological alterations before and during healing from injury. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2010 Apr;17(2):139-46. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.02.007. Epub 2010 Feb 6. PMID: 23961070; PMCID: PMC3730704.

Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, Pugliese AM, Cerbai E, Menichetti S, Lo Nostro A. Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh. Planta Med. 2000 May;66(4):356-8. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-8532. PMID: 10865454.

Wanner J, Schmidt E, Bail S, Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Gochev V, Girova T, Atanasova T, Stoyanova A. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected essential oils and some of their main compounds. Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Sep;5(9):1359-64. PMID: 20922991.

Lee K, Lee JH, Kim SI, Cho MH, Lee J. Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Nov;98(22):9447-57. doi: 10.1007/s00253-014-5903-4. Epub 2014 Jul 16. PMID: 25027570.

Feng J, Shi W, Miklossy J, Tauxe GM, McMeniman CJ, Zhang Y. Identification of Essential Oils with Strong Activity against Stationary Phase Borrelia burgdorferi. Antibiotics (Basel). 2018 Oct 16;7(4):89. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics7040089. PMID: 30332754; PMCID: PMC6316231.


2. May Support Oral Health:

Due to its antimicrobial properties, myrrh has traditionally been used to treat oral infections and inflammation. Some natural mouthwashes and toothpaste contain myrrh oil, which is approved as a flavoring by the FDA. Because of its strong antiseptic properties, myrrh is often used to treat bad breath and mouth infections, as well as various viruses and fungi.

What’s more, when people with Behcet’s disease — an inflammatory disorder — used a myrrh mouthwash to treat painful mouth sores four times daily for a week, 50% of them had complete pain relief and 19% had complete healing of their mouth sores.

Test-tube studies suggest that mouthwash containing myrrh oil may also help gingivitis, which is inflammation of the gums around your teeth due to a buildup of plaque. Yet, more studies are needed to confirm these benefits. Keep in mind that you should never swallow myrrh oral-care products, as high doses of myrrh can be toxic.

Additionally, if you have oral surgery, it may be best to avoid myrrh mouthwash during healing. A test-tube study found that stitches — especially silk ones — can degrade when exposed to myrrh, though they held up in the doses typically found in mouthwash.

Summary: Some natural mouthwashes and toothpastes contain myrrh oil, which may help relieve mouth sores and gum inflammation. Never swallow these products.



Tipton DA, Lyle B, Babich H, Dabbous MKh. In vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of myrrh oil on human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003 Jun;17(3):301-10. doi: 10.1016/s0887-2333(03)00018-3. PMID: 12781209.

Jamal Albishri. The efficacy of MYRRH in oral ulcer in patients with Behcet's Disease. American Journal of Research Communication, 2017, 5(1): 23-28}, ISSN: 2325-4076

Alshehri MA, Baskaradoss JK, Geevarghese A, Ramakrishnaiah R, Tatakis DN. Effects of myrrh on the strength of suture materials: an in vitro study. Dent Mater J. 2015;34(2):148-53. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2013-317. Epub 2015 Jan 19. PMID: 25736257.


3. Supports Skin Health and May Help Heal Sores:

Traditional uses of myrrh include treating skin wounds and infections. Today, scientists are testing these applications. One test-tube study of human skin cells found that an essential oil blend containing myrrh helped heal wounds. Another study noted that myrrh and other essential oils applied via baths helped mothers heal skin wounds from vaginal deliveries.

However, multiple oils were used simultaneously in these studies, so the individual effects of myrrh for wound healing are unclear. Specific studies on myrrh oil are more telling. A test-tube study on 247 different essential oil combinations found that myrrh oil mixed with sandalwood oil was especially effective at killing microbes that infect skin wounds.

Additionally, in one test-tube study, myrrh oil alone inhibited 43–61% of the growth of five fungi that cause skin conditions, including ringworm and athlete’s foot. Human research is needed to confirm these benefits. However, if you want to try myrrh for general skin health, many natural ointments and soaps contain it. You can also apply diluted myrrh oil directly on your skin.

Summary: Applying diluted myrrh oil on your skin may aid wound healing and fight microbes that can cause infections. The oil may also deter the growth of skin fungi, including ringworm and athlete’s foot.



Mahboubi M, Kashani LM. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Commiphora molmol. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(4):720-5. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1072831. Epub 2015 Oct 1. PMID: 26427766.

Han X, Beaumont C, Stevens N. Chemical composition analysis and in vitro biological activities of ten essential oils in human skin cells. Biochim Open. 2017 Apr 26;5:1-7. doi: 10.1016/ j.biopen.2017.04.001. PMID: 29450150; PMCID: PMC5805555.

Hur MH, Han SH. [Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother's perineal healing]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004 Feb;34(1):53-62. Korean. doi: 10.4040/jkan.2004.34.1.53. PMID: 15314339.

Orchard A, Viljoen A, van Vuuren S. Wound Pathogens: Investigating Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Essential Oil Combinations against Reference Strains. Chem Biodivers. 2018 Dec;15(12):e1800405. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201800405. Epub 2018 Dec 17. PMID: 30362637.4.


4. Combats Pain and Swelling:

Pain — such as headaches, joint pain and back pain — is a common complaint. Myrrh oil contains compounds that interact with opioid receptors and tell your brain you’re not in pain. Myrrh also blocks the production of inflammatory chemicals that can lead to swelling and pain. It has been shown to be highly anti-inflammatory and is thought to alleviate pain by stimulating blood circulation, making it a popular treatment for joint pain and hemorrhoids.

When people prone to headaches took a multi-ingredient supplement containing myrrh’s pain- relieving compounds, their headache pain was reduced by about two-thirds during the six-month study. Further research is needed to confirm these benefits. The supplement tested isn’t available in the US, and ingesting myrrh oil is not recommended.

You can buy myrrh-containing homeopathic rubbing oils and other essential oils meant to relieve pain when applied directly to sore body parts. However, these haven’t been studied.

Summary: Myrrh oil contains plant compounds that may temporarily relieve pain by signaling your brain that you’re not in pain. It may also block your body’s production of inflammatory chemicals that lead to swelling and pain.



Germano A, Occhipinti A, Barbero F, Maffei ME. A Pilot Study on Bioactive Constituents and Analgesic Effects of MyrLiq®, a Commiphora myrrha Extract with a High Furanodiene Content. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3804356. doi: 10.1155/2017/3804356. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28626756; PMCID: PMC5463107.

Al-Hasani R, Bruchas MR. Molecular mechanisms of opioid receptor-dependent signaling and behavior. Anesthesiology. 2011 Dec;115(6):1363-81. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318238bba6. PMID: 22020140; PMCID: PMC3698859.

Su S, Wang T, Duan JA, Zhou W, Hua YQ, Tang YP, Yu L, Qian DW. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Commiphora myrrha. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.003. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PMID: 21167270.

Scarzella L. Effects of a novel MYRLIQ®, Ginkgo Biloba, Q10 and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) based nutraceutical in patients suffering from migraine headache without aura or sporadic episodes of tension-type headache. A six-month pilot study. Gazz Med Ital - Arch Sci Med 2017;176:149-53. DOI: 10.23736/S0393-3660.16.03444-6


5. May Be a Powerful Antioxidant:

Myrrh may be a powerful antioxidant, a compound that combats oxidative damage. Oxidative damage from free radicals contributes to aging and some diseases. A test-tube study found that myrrh oil was more effective than vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant, at fighting free radicals.

Additionally, in an animal study, myrrh oil helped protect the liver against lead-induced oxidative damage in direct proportion to the amount of myrrh given prior to lead exposure. It isn’t known whether inhaling myrrh oil or applying it topically — which are two safe uses of myrrh oil for people — helps protect your body against oxidative damage.

Summary: Test-tube and animal studies show that myrrh oil is a powerful antioxidant and even more effective than vitamin E. However, human studies are needed.



Racine P, Auffray B. Quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by Commiphora myrrha extracts and menthofuran. Fitoterapia. 2005 Jun;76(3-4):316-23. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.03.017. PMID: 15890469.

Ashry KM, El-Sayed YS, Khamiss RM, El-Ashmawy IM. Oxidative stress and immunotoxic effects of lead and their amelioration with myrrh (Commiphora molmol) emulsion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Jan;48(1):236-41. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.006. Epub 2009 Oct 8. PMID: 19818824.

El Ashry ES, Rashed N, Salama OM, Saleh A. Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh. Pharmazie. 2003 Mar;58(3):163-8. PMID: 12685809.


6. Kills Some Parasites:

You can become infected with parasites from many sources, including pets, sexual activity and contaminated food or water. Two common parasitic infections in the US are trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease, and giardiasis, an intestinal infection.

In a preliminary study, women who failed to respond to standard drug treatment for trichomoniasis were given an oral drug, Mirazid, made of myrrh sap and its essential oil. About 85% of them were cured of the infection. Additionally, an animal study found that the same myrrh drug effectively treated giardiasis.

Some human research suggests that this myrrh drug also may be effective against the parasite Fasciola gigantica, which can cause liver and bile duct diseases. However, other studies failed to see a benefit. Mirazid is not widely prescribed at this time.

Though more research is needed, myrrh and its oil may prove helpful for treating parasites, especially in cases of drug resistance. Ingesting myrrh oil is not advised, and long-term safety must be assessed.

Summary: Preliminary studies suggest that a myrrh-containing medicine may help treat some common parasites, but more research on its effectiveness and safety is needed.



Kucik CJ, Martin GL, Sortor BV. Common intestinal parasites. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Mar 1;69(5):1161-8. PMID: 15023017.

El-Sherbiny GM, El Sherbiny ET. The Effect of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) in Treatment of Trichomoniasis vaginalis infection. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2011 Jul;13(7):480-6. Epub 2011 Jul 1. PMID: 22737515; PMCID: PMC3371981.

Fathy FM. Effect of mirazid (Commiphora molmol) on experimental giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011 Apr;41(1):155-77. PMID: 21634251.

Allam AF, el-Sayad MH, Khalil SS. Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal activity of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) on Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea cailliaudi. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2001;31:683-90.

Buckley SA, Evershed RP. Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco- Roman mummies. Nature. 2001;413:837-41.

Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, Pugliese AM, Cerbai E, Menichetti S, Lo Nostro A. Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh. Planta Med. 2000;66:356-8.

Mazzio EA, Soliman KF. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs. Phytother Res. 2009;23:385-98.

PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US); 2002-2010. Mirazid. Available from: ubmed&cmd=DetailsSearch&term=mirazid.

Yakoot M. IX European Multicolloquium of Parasitology (EMOP-IX). Oral Presentation: Valencia, Spain, 2004 July 18-23rd., Abstract Book, p 261.

Massoud AM, Shalaby HA, El Khateeb RM, Mahmoud MS, Kutkat MA. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Jun;3(6):501-4. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60104-5. PMID: 23730566; PMCID: PMC3644581.

Massoud AM, El-Sherbini ET, Mos N, Saleh NM, Abouel-Nour MF, Morsy AT. Mirazid in treatment of three zoonotic trematodes in Beni-Sweif and Dakhalia Governorates. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2010 Apr;40(1):119-34. PMID: 20503592.

Massoud AM, Shalaby HA, El Khateeb RM, Mahmoud MS, Kutkat MA. Effects of Mirazid(®) and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Nov;2(11):875-84. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60246-9. PMID: 23569864; PMCID: PMC3609237.


7. Sunscreen:

One test-tube study found that SPF 15 sunscreen with added myrrh oil was significantly more effective at blocking ultraviolet rays than the sunscreen alone. By itself, myrrh oil wasn’t as effective as the sunscreen.



Chakravarty N, Kellogg C, Alvarez J, Equils O, Morgan M. UV Protection by Natural Products: C. myrrha Oil Versus Sunscreen. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018 Aug 1;17(8):905-907. PMID: 30124732.


8. Cancer:

Test-tube studies suggest that myrrh oil may help kill or slow the growth of cancer cells from the liver, prostate, breast, skin and female genital tract and reproductive system.



Ge CY, Zhang JL. Bioactive sesquiterpenoids and steroids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Nat Prod Res. 2019 Feb;33(3):309-315. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1448811. Epub 2018 Mar 13. PMID: 29533080.

Wang XL, Kong F, Shen T, Young CY, Lou HX, Yuan HQ. Sesquiterpenoids from myrrh inhibit androgen receptor expression and function in human prostate cancer cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011 Mar;32(3):338-44. doi: 10.1038/aps.2010.219. PMID: 21372825; PMCID: PMC4002774.

Chen Y, Zhou C, Ge Z, Liu Y, Liu Y, Feng W, Li S, Chen G, Wei T. Composition and potential anticancer activities of essential oils obtained from myrrh and frankincense. Oncol Lett. 2013 Oct;6(4):1140-1146. doi: 10.3892/ol.2013.1520. Epub 2013 Aug 8. PMID: 24137478; PMCID: PMC3796379.

Furanosesquiterpenoids of Commiphora myrrha. Nanqun Zhu, Hiroe Kikuzaki, Shuqun Sheng, Shengmin Sang, Mohamed M. Rafi, Mingfu Wang, Nobuji Nakatani, Robert S. DiPaola, Robert T. Rosen, and Chi-Tang Ho. Journal of Natural Products 2001 64 (11), 1460-1462. DOI: 10.1021/np010072j

Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(8), pp. 1382-1389, 18 April, 2011 ISSN 1996-0875 ©2011 Academic Journals. Cytotoxicity activity of extracts and compounds from Commiphora myrrha resin against human gynecologic cancer cells. Shulan Su-1, Tuanjie Wang-2, Ting Chen-2, Jin-ao Duan-1*, Li Yu1 and Yuping Tang-1 1-Jiangsu Key laboratory for TCM formulae Research, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046; China. 2-College of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China


9. Gut health:

One animal study indicates that myrrh compounds may help treat intestinal spasms related to irritable bowel syndrome. Another animal study suggests that myrrh may help treat indigestion and stomach ulcers.



Vissiennon C, Goos KH, Goos O, Nieber K. Antispasmodic effects of myrrh due to calcium antagonistic effects in inflamed rat small intestinal preparations. Planta Med. 2015 Jan;81(2):116-22. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1383391. Epub 2015 Jan 15. PMID: 25590370.

Alfky, N. , Mustafa, R. , Header, E. , Sawy, N. and Al-Kushi, A. (2016) Antiulcer Activities of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) Extract in Male Rats. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 6, 300-309. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.610033.


10. Mold:
Test-tube studies note that myrrh oil may help kill mold, including Aspergillus niger, which commonly appears as mildew on damp walls, and A. flavus, which causes spoilage & mold contamination of food.



Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(7):151-156 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 151 Commiphora myrrha and commiphora Africana essential oils; Suad A. Gadir-1 and Ibtisam M. Ahmed-2; 1-Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Alzaeim Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan 2-Faculty of Education, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Scientific Research Program Ph.D. Chemistry, Alzaeim Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan.


Here is one further reference with an abstract that provides a helpful summary:

The Role of Myrrh Metabolites in Cancer, Inflammation, and Wound Healing: Prospects for a Multi-Targeted Drug TherapyPharmaceuticals 2022, 15(8), 944; 10.3390/ph15080944 Natural Pharmacons: Biologically Active Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals 2022)



Background: Myrrh extract is a well-known medicinal plant with significant therapeutic benefits attributed to the activity of its diverse metabolites. It has promising activity against cancer and inflammatory diseases, and could serve as a potential therapeutic alternative since most therapeutic agents have severe side effects that impair quality of life. Method: The current study identified the active metabolites from the myrrh resin methanolic extract. Then, the extracts were tested for in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity using cancer cell lines and Tamm- Horsfall Protein 1 (Thp-1)-like macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, using an in vivo rat model, the extracts’ anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activity was investigated. In addition, in silico predictions of the myrrh constituents highlighted the pharmacokinetic properties, molecular targets, and safety profile, including cytochrome P 450 (CYP) inhibition and organ toxicity. Results: Nine secondary metabolites were identified, and computational predictions suggested a good absorption profile, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. The myrrh extract had moderate cytotoxic activity against both HL60 and K562 leukemia cell lines and the KAIMRC1 breast cancer cell line. Myrrh caused a dose-dependent effect on macrophages to increase the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, promote their polarization to classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) phenotypes, and consequently induce apoptosis, highlighting its ability to modulate macrophage function, which could potentially aid in several desired therapeutic processes, including the resolution of inflammation, and autophagy which is an important aspect to consider in cancer treatment. The topical application of myrrh improved wound healing, with no delayed inflammatory response, and promoted complete re-epithelization of the skin, similar to the positive control. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the methanolic extract of myrrh having cytotoxic activity against cancer cells and anti-inflammatory wound-healing properties, which may be attributed to its role in modulating macrophage function. Furthermore, we suggest the active constituents responsible for these properties, which warrants further studies focusing on the precise roles of the active metabolites.

In brief, the findings of the present investigation support the valuable anti-cancer and anti- inflammatory activity of myrrh; in addition, the wound healing properties could be attributed to its ability to modulate macrophage function. Using in vitro testing, our results revealed that myrrh had an anti-cancer effect against several cancer cell lines and an immunomodulatory effect with acceptable ADME properties. This could be used as a starting point to explore the potential biological properties of each active compound. Together, these results provide insights into the potential therapeutic activity of myrrh extract, which warrants further efficacy and safety investigations.






Saffron is named among the sweet-smelling herbs in the Bible’s Song of Solomon (4:14). As a perfume, saffron was strewn in Greek and Roman halls, courts, theatres, and baths.  Medicinal plants have played an important role in human health since the Stone Age. According to WHO, 80% of Asian and African people rely on traditional medicine and medicinal plants to conserve their health. Saffron has received much attention among the herbal compounds related to cancer treatment.  Early evidence suggests that it may also fight oxidative stress. Saffron is generally safe for most people to consume, and it is very simple to add it to the diet.


Crocus sativus L. belonging to Iridaceae family, commonly known as saffron, is a perennial herb widely cultivated in Iran and other countries, such as India and Greece. Commercial saffron is a spice comprised of dried red stigma with a small portion of the yellowish style attached to the flower of Crocus sativus L., in Chinese its known as Fan-Hong-Hua. Saffron is a spice with a strong fragrance and distinctive color.  From decades saffron was used in traditional Chinese medicines for its expectorant, aphrodisiac, and antispasmodic effects.


The spice saffron is made from the dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L. The main use of saffron is in cooking, due to its ability to impart color, flavor and aroma to foods and beverages. However, from time immemorial it has also been considered a medicinal plant because it possesses therapeutic properties, as illustrated in paintings found on the island of Santorini, dated 1627 BC. It is included in Catalogues of Medicinal Plants and in the European Pharmacopoeias, being part of a great number of compounded formulas from the 16th to the 20th centuries. 

The medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of this plant largely disappeared with the advent of synthetic chemistry-produced drugs. However, in recent years there has been growing interest in demonstrating saffron’s already known bioactivity, which is attributed to the main components—crocetin and its glycosidic esters, called crocins, and safranal—and to the synergy between the compounds present in the spice.

Saffron has been famous as both medicine and spice in some cultures. The stigma of saffron has been used as a medicine over 3600 years ago.  Saffron was used in various opioid preparations for pain relief (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries).  Also, saffron has been used in coloring tunics in the region of Spain and by the Babylonian culture around 2400 BC.  This expensive spice can be found in different mountainous regions of Asia Minor to Greece, Western Asia, Egypt, or Kashmir.  Each of the flowers has three red-colored stigma, and one stigma of saffron weighs approximately 2 mg.  Approximately 1 kg of this valuable spice is made from 150,000 flowers that must be carefully picked.    Saffron is a spice from the Crocus sativus flower, which is a cousin of the lily. The saffron derives from the stigma and styles — called threads — within the flower itself. Saffron is very expensive due to the difficulty of harvesting it. Farmers must harvest the delicate threads from each flower by hand.  They then heat and cure the threads to bring out the flavor of the saffron. This extra labor makes saffron one of the most expensive spices in the world. 

The Bible’s medicinal herbs have been considered as essential treatment for health approaches with lower rates of side effects. According to WHO’s global report, there is a widespread use of herbal medicine all over the world. Saffron as a well-known spice extracted from the flower of Crocus sativus L. has been used in traditional medicine for treating several diseases including depression, cardiovascular disease, menstruation disorders, asthma, insomnia, digestive ailments and some others. 

The beneficial effects of saffron, Crocus sativus L. stigma, are due to a number of ingredients contained within this spice, including safranal, crocetin and crocins. Pioneering experimental studies indicated that saffron with strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties may provide extended protection against inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. 

Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. 

The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome.

Saffron’s bioactive compounds have immense therapeutic properties, including those beneficial against coronary artery diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, bronchitis, asthma, diabetes, fever, colds, and metabolic syndrome. A detailed analysis of its medicinal properties points to its immense untapped potential for easing the distress symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) patients and managing the post-covid-19 syndrome.



One objective of our ministry work is to provide people with an updated and critical review of the ongoing research on the therapeutic properties of certain Bible herbs including saffron. It is important to know about saffron’s activity on the nervous and cardiovascular systems; in the liver; and its antidepressant, anxiolytic and antineoplastic properties; as well as its potential use as a functional food or nutraceutical.

Recently, approximately 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds have been detected from the chemical analysis of C. sativus L. However, fewer than 50 constituents have been identified so far as the phyto-chemicals of C. sativus L. The major constituents of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal. The phytochemical agents in saffron are responsible for many pharmacological actions in the body. The phytochemical research has found that the color of saffron is mainly because of the degraded compound of carotenoids, which are crocin and crocetin. Many clinical studies focused more on the antidepressant effects of saffron.

As a dietary supplement, saffron extracts may prevent retinal damage in rats and have a role in the treatment of ischemic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were reported from stigmas and petals of saffron. Literature review showed that a decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels and reduction in vascular damage were observed when hyper-lipidemic rabbits were treated by crocetin. Hypoxia at the vascular wall was also reduced.   

However, in another study, 400 mg/day (for 7 days) of saffron showed no effect on the lipid profile of the healthy volunteers. In addition, an anti-oxidant effect was observed in human platelets together with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.There is a report that reviewed the potential role of saffron extracts in cancer therapy. However, saffron appears to be a selective cytotoxic plant but its mechanism is not clearly determined.

Besides the above-mentioned activity, improvement of ethanol-impaired memory of mice, effects on learning behavior and neuronal cell death, and management of psoriasis were reported from C. sativus. Saffron is generally not toxic when ingested in culinary amounts, but a lethal dose at 20 g and an abortifacient dose at 10 g have been indicated in the literature. Adverse reactions such as rhino-conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, cutaneous pruritus, and a case report of anaphylaxis have existed.  Saffron provides people with a variety of promising preventive and therapeutic health benefits that help resist disease. Here are more specific details about the many health benefits of saffron.


Here are more specific details about the health benefits of the Bible herb known as saffron:


1. Preventing Nervous System Disorders:

The antioxidants in saffron may play a role in protecting the body from disorders affecting the nervous system.  Research notes that compounds in saffron, such as crocin, appear to reduce inflammation and oxidative damage in the brain, which may lead to beneficial effects.

A study in the journal Antioxidants noted that saffron might theoretically help with Alzheimer’s symptoms due to both its memory-enhancing properties and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.  People with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s who took saffron for 22 weeks had cognitive improvements that were comparable with those of people who took the drug donepezil, and they also experienced fewer side effects.

While this is early evidence to support the medicinal use of saffron, researchers suggested that future clinical trials could help back up these claims.


2. Preventing Depression and Boosting Mood:

There is also growing evidence that saffron may help improve mood and be a useful addition to treatment for depression.  A study in the Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science found that a saffron extract increased dopamine levels in the brain without changing the levels of other brain hormones, such as serotonin.

Other research suggests that taking 30 milligrams (mg) of saffron each day could cause similar effects as drugs that treat mild-to-moderate depression, such as imipramine and fluoxetine. One of the most established findings regarding the benefits of saffron is its antidepressant activity. There are clinical trials conducted, evaluating the efficacy of saffron in mild-to-moderate depression. The studies reported that saffron was more effective than placebo and at least equivalent to the therapeutic doses of imipramine and fluoxetine. 

One of the top five most predominant diseases worldwide is depression. Depression can affect the quality of life of someone because of the facts that it can cause a headache, difficulty in thinking, and loss of interest.  There are clinical trials conducted evaluating the efficacy of saffron in mild-to-moderate depression. The studies reported that saffron was more effective than placebo and at least equivalent to therapeutic doses of imipramine and fluoxetine. No significant differences were found in adverse effects in any of the studies.

Saffron extract appears to reduce depressive mood in healthy individuals experiencing subclinical mood disturbance and adds to the growing literature showing consistent benefits of saffron on depression outcomes across both clinical and non-clinical populations. Importantly, the beneficial effect of saffron on heart rate variability in response to a psychosocial stressor—shown for the very first time in the present study—suggests that this natural extract may be particularly relevant for increasing resilience against the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to identify the exact mechanisms underpinning these effects in humans. 

Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems with high economic and social costs. Currently, a number of treatments are available for patients with depression and anxiety disorders such as psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressant drugs. Due to safety concerns, adverse effects, limited efficacy and low tolerability associated with many antidepressant and anti-anxiety medications, identification of novel agents with less toxicity and more favorable outcome is warranted.

Several interesting data have been reported about the antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties of saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., in several preclinical and clinical studies. In particular, a number of clinical trials demonstrated that saffron and its active constituents possess antidepressant properties similar to those of current antidepressant medications such as fluoxetine, imipramine and citalopram, but with fewer reported side effects.   Saffron extract appears to improve subclinical depressive symptoms in healthy individuals and may contribute to increased resilience against the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders.


3. Promoting Libido:

Saffron may also increase sex drive and sexual function in both males and females.  Researchers reviewed the effects of saffron on male infertility problems and noted that while it had a positive effect on erectile dysfunction and overall sex drive, it did not change the viability of the semen.

An older study from 2012 looked at the effects in women who had reported experiencing sexual dysfunction due to taking the antidepressant fluoxetine.  Women who took 30 mg of saffron each day for 4 weeks had increased sexual desire and vaginal lubrication compared with those who took a placebo instead.


4. Reducing PMS Symptoms:

Saffron may also act to reduce the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).  The authors of a 2015 review looked at the research on saffron and symptoms of PMS. Women between the ages of 20 and 45 years who took 30 mg of saffron each day had fewer symptoms than those who took a placebo.   Additionally, women who simply smelled saffron for 20 minutes had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol in their system, which may also contribute to a reduction in PMS symptoms.


5. Promoting weight loss:

There is also some evidence to suggest that saffron may help promote weight loss and curb the appetite.  A study in the Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research found that taking a saffron extract helped people with coronary artery disease reduce their body mass index (BMI), total fat mass, and waist circumference.  People who took the supplement also had a reduced appetite compared with those in the placebo group.


6. Cancer Treatment:

Saffron has received much attention among the herbal compounds related to cancer treatment. Saffron has selective toxic and preventive effects on cancerous cells and without adverse effects on normal cells and prevents tumor formation. Saffron appears to reduce the toxic effects of anticancer drugs. Saffron has toxicity effects when used in high amounts, which are far greater than those used in human food culture. Saffron is rich in antioxidants, which may have many health benefits. 


7. Cardiovascular Disease:

Saffron as a natural product has long been used to impede and treat different disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Stigma is the most principal part of saffron. Various compounds such as carotenoids and flavonoids are the essential components of saffron stigma. The health benefits of saffron have been shown in previous studies showing that saffron and its components can modulate various cardiovascular risk factors such as oxidative stress, atherosclerosis and inflammation.  However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the mechanistic aspects of its cardiovascular-health properties.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major causes of mortality globally. Approximately, CVDs were the main cause of 17.7 million people’s deaths in 2015, representing 31% of all deaths around the world. Among CVDs risk factors, overweight and obesity, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and genetics are the most common ones. Proof of recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicates that saffron may have cardio-protective effects through modulation of oxidative stress, calcium channel-blocking effects, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties.  Our study concludes that saffron with wide range of usefulness in medicine may be the potent candidate in the process of new drug production for the treatment of CVDs. 


8. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties:

Cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure and stroke are a spectrum of disorders including the heart and blood vessels which are known as “the world’s first killer” especially for middle-aged and elderly subjects. Inflammation plays an essential role in the atherosclerosis which is the dominant cause of CVDs. During the early stage of atherogenesis, inflammation in the innermost layer of the vessels induces pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules to release. In addition, oxidative stress is involved in several different manifestations of CVDs. 

Over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is leading to inflammation and initiates processes which are associated with atherogenesis through several key enzymes including nitric oxide synthase (NOS), xanthine oxidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Furthermore, due to the high oxidative metabolism and low antioxidant defense in cardiac tissue compared with others, this organ is susceptible to oxidative damage.

Similar to some other medicinal plants, saffron is known for its natural potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. As preliminary phytochemical evidences proved, it can be proposed that among the components of saffron extract, the carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins are mainly responsible for its antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activities. 

Saffron extracts also significantly increase antioxidant capacity. Moreover, recent human and in vivo studies have shown the antioxidant activity of carotenoid compounds were extracted from the saffron. Generally, the remarkable antioxidant ability of the saffron extract may be related to a synergistic activity of its essential substances.

In addition to the antioxidant properties of saffron extract, its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity promote saffron’s cardio- protective effects. The radical scavenging property of saffron is involved in its anti-inflammatory activities. It showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of saffron’s constituents are due to its significant inhibitory effects against cycloxoygenase 1 and 2 enzymes and prostaglandin E2 production.

The majority of the health claims surrounding saffron relate to its high levels of specific antioxidants.  The antioxidants in saffron help fight against oxidative stress.  The main active antioxidants include: crocin, picrocrocin and safranal.  Other compounds include kaempferol and crocetin.  These antioxidants help fight against oxidative stress and free radicals in the body.   As oxidative stress and free radicals play a role in the development of many health conditions, including cancer and heart disease, antioxidants such as these may help protect a person’s health.


9. Here is some further scientific research on saffron that provides a helpful conclusion: 

Despite the importance of saffron in medicine and phytochemistry, modern approaches based on omics studies are relatively rare.  The metabolic and biochemical properties of saffron confirm its immense role in the pharmacognosy and pharma industry.  Studies on the binding potential of carotenoid pathway bioactive molecules for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor of SARS-CoV-2 show the possibility of using the saffron based remedy for novel coronavirus. 

Flexible molecular docking followed by atomic level interaction study indicated that lutein and picrocrocin form various interactions with different amino acid residues of ACE2. In-depth analysis revealed that these interactions could be crucial for receptor-binding domain (RBD) binding and, therefore, potentially disrupting the interaction between RBD and ACE2. The study provides a clue for advanced studies involving in vitro, animal models and clinical studies. 

The efficacy of saffron in managing depression is comparable to drugs like imipramine, fluoxetine, and citalopram. The saffron metabolites can help manage stress and anxiety during the prolonged lockdown, isolation, and quarantine. Owing to all these beneficial properties and as an immunity booster, saffron extracts may be added in some drug formulations in future.

Moreover, attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as TNF-α, inhibiting transcription factors like NF-κB which intensifies chronic inflammation and suppressing inflammatory genes expression via raising histone deacetylase activity are the most important causes of saffron’s anti- inflammatory properties. As preliminary phytochemical results indicated, crocin and crocus glycosides exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect, in a recent in vitro study too, crocin and crocetin ameliorated cell cytotoxicity, suppressed IL-8 expressions as an inflammatory factors through blocking NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, crocetin attenuates inflammation and vascular injury through the inhibition of immune cells adhesion and infiltration into inflamed endothelium.  

Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been indicated to be involved in numerous cardiovascular diseases especially in myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy and etc. Further studies have showed that this highly regulated program of cell death is activated in cardiac myocytes by several stressors including inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Inhibition of apoptosis signaling pathways and suppression of myocardial cell death by antioxidants may be a possible pharmacological intervention to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Numerous in vitro and animal studies suggested that crocin inhibited the down- regulation in Bcl-2 gene expression and it also inhibited the up-regulation of Bax mRNA expression and therefore reduced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. 

Furthermore, it is reported that crocin increases cells viability by increasing the Glutathione reductase (GR) and c-Glutamylcysteinyl synthase (c-GCS) activities. It also induces glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Bax as a pro-apoptotic protein and Bcl-2 with anti-apoptotic properties are the two primary members of the Bcl-2 family which involved in intrinsic signaling pathway (also known mitochondrial apoptosis). The balance between these pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is essential in apoptosis progression. Saffron extract, especially crocin, decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and may alleviate apoptosis in cardiac myocytes and other cells. 

Akhondzadeh et al reported that the antioxidant activities of methanol and water-methanol (50:50 v/v) extracts of crocus sativus’ stigma were more than those of carrots and tomatoes. Numerous studies claimed that among carotenoids constituents of saffron, crocin and crocetin showed high radical scavenging activities followed by safranal. High radical scavenging activity of these constituents is maybe due to their ability to donate single hydrogen atom to the free radicals. In vitro experiments and animal studies have shown that saffron extracts (especially crocetin and crocin) decrease plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level as an index of lipid peroxidation which is induced by ROS.

Saffron extracts through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms exhibited a protective effect against cardiotoxicity under ischemic conditions. Some previous investigations suggested that crocin can be deemed as an efficient antiplatelet phytochemical, which protects the platelets from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and inhibits platelets aggregation and as a result asserts its important role as a cardio-protective substance.

The results provide new evidence about antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti- apoptotic, anti-hypertensive, and hypolipidemic effects of saffron. Pharmacological effects of saffron are due to a number of ingredients contained within this spice, including safranal, crocetin and crocins.


Potential Side Effects, Amounts and Dosage:

In general, the consumption of saffron carries little risk. Taking up to 1.5 grams of saffron each day is generally safe, but eating too much can be toxic. Researchers consider 5 g to be a toxic dose.  Very high dosages may be more dangerous for certain groups of people. For instance, the authors of one study note that pregnant women should avoid having more than 5 g per day of saffron as it has a stimulating effect on the uterus.  Allergic reactions are a possibility. Anyone who experiences symptoms of an allergic reaction after taking saffron should see a doctor. 



Siddiqui MJ, Saleh MSM, Basharuddin SNBB, Zamri SHB, Mohd Najib MHB, Che Ibrahim MZB, Binti Mohd Noor NA, Binti Mazha HN, Mohd Hassan N, Khatib A. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): As an Antidepressant. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):173-180. doi: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18. PMID: 30568374; PMCID: PMC6266642.

Here is the link to "Saffron; An updated review on biological properties with special focus on cardiovascular effects":;

Husaini, A.M., Haq, S.A. & Jiménez, A.J.L. Understanding saffron biology using omics- and bioinformatics tools: stepping towards a better Crocus phenome. Mol Biol Rep 49, 5325–5340 (2022).  Received September 2021. Published February 2022. Issue Date June 2022.   DOI

Poma A, Fontecchio G, Carlucci G, Chichiriccò G. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2012;11(1):37-51. doi: 10.2174/187152312803476282. PMID: 22934747.

Khazdair MR, Boskabady MH, Hosseini M, Rezaee R, M Tsatsakis A. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):376-91. PMID: 26468457; PMCID: PMC4599112.

Adalier N, Parker H. Vitamin E, Turmeric and Saffron in Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Antioxidants (Basel). 2016 Oct 25;5(4):40. doi: 10.3390/antiox5040040. PMID: 27792130; PMCID: PMC5187538.

Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 2013, 3, 315-319.  doi:10.4236/jbbs.2013.33031 Published Online July 2013 (  Aqueous Extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Increases Brain Dopamine and Glutamate Concentrations in Rats;   Hosseinali Ettehadi, Seyedeh Nargesolsadat Mojabi, Mina Ranjbaran, Jamal Shams, Hedayat Sahraei, Mahdi Hedayati, Farzad Asefi; Institute of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; et al.

Maleki-Saghooni N, Mirzaeii K, Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghi R, Irani M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials on saffron (Crocus sativus) effectiveness and safety on erectile dysfunction and semen parameters. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 May-Jun;8(3):198-209. PMID: 29881706; PMCID: PMC5987435.

Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study;  Ladan Kashani, Firoozeh Raisi, Sepideh Saroukhani, Hamid Sohrabi, Amirhossein Modabbernia, Abbas-Ali Nasehi, Amirhossein Jamshidi, Mandana Ashrafi, Parisa MansouriFirst published: 20 December 2012;

Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review; M. Moshiri; M. Vahabzadeh; H. Hosseinzadeh;Drug Res (Stuttg) 2015; 65(06): 287-295;  DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1375681.

Abedimanesh N, Bathaie SZ, Abedimanesh S, Motlagh B, Separham A, Ostadrahimi A. Saffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017;9(4):200-208. doi: 10.15171/jcvtr.2017.35. Epub 2017 Dec 30. PMID: 29391933; PMCID: PMC5787332.

Here is the link to "Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on lipid profile, glycemic indices and antioxidant status among overweight/obese prediabetic individuals: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial":

Here is the link to "Immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of saffron aqueous extract (Crocus sativus L.) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats":

Here is the link to "Bioactive Components of Saffron and Their Pharmacological Properties":

Here is the link to "A comprehensive review of the pharmacological potential of Crocus sativus and its bioactive apocarotenoids":

Here is the link to "Mechanism behind the anti-tumour potential of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): The molecular perspective":

Here is the link to "The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of crocin on chemosensitive and chemoresistant cervical cancer cells":

Here is the link to "Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review":

Here is the link to "Anticancer Effect and Molecular Targets of Saffron Carotenoids":

Here is the link to "Evidence of neuroprotective effects of saffron and crocin in a Drosophila model of parkinsonism":

Here is the link to "Neuropharmacology Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and Its Active Constituents":

Here is the link to "Dietary Antioxidants in Prostate Cancer":

Here is the link to "Effects of saffron supplementation on improving sleep quality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials":

Here is the link to "Study the effects of saffron on depression and lipid profiles: A double blind comparative study":

Here is the link to "Effect of crocin on diabetic patients: A placebo-controlled, triple-blinded clinical trial":

Here is the link to "Crocus Sativus L. (saffron) versus sertraline on symptoms of depression among older people with major depressive disorders–a double-blind, randomized intervention study":

Here is the link to "Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on lipid profile, glycemic indices and antioxidant status among overweight/obese prediabetic individuals: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial":

Here is the link to "Therapeutic Benefits of Saffron in Brain Diseases: New Lights on Possible Pharmacological Mechanisms":

Here is the link to "Protective effects of saffron and its active components against oxidative stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells":

Here is the link to "Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Alzheimer's Disease":

Here is the link to "Polyphenols and Aging":

Here is the link to "How Phytochemicals Prevent Chemical Carcinogens and/or Suppress Tumor Growth?":

Here is the link to "Safranal as a novel anti-tubulin binding agent with potential use in cancer therapy: An in vitro study":

Here is the link to "Saffron reduces some inflammation and oxidative stress markers in donepezil-treated mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's Disease patients: A randomized double-blind placebo-control trial":

Gohari AR, Saeidnia S, Mahmoodabadi MK. An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties. Pharmacogn Rev. 2013 Jan;7(13):61-6. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.112850. PMID: 23922458; PMCID: PMC3731881.





The Bible mentions hyssop several times, mostly in the Old Testament. In Leviticus (Lev.), God commanded His people to use hyssop in the ceremonial cleansing of people and houses. In one example, God tells the priests to use hyssop together with cedar wood, scarlet yarn, and the blood of a clean bird to sprinkle a person recently healed from a skin disease (likely leprosy).  This act would ceremonially cleanse the formerly diseased person or a person who had contact with a dead body and allow them to reenter the camp (Lev. 14:1-7; Numbers 19:1-22). The same method was used to purify a house that had previously contained mold (Leviticus 14:33-53). 

Hyssop is also used symbolically in the Bible. When the Israelites marked their doorposts with lamb’s blood in order for the angel of death to pass over them, God instructed them to use a bunch of hyssop as a “paintbrush” (Exodus 12:22). This was probably because hyssop was sturdy and could withstand the brushing, but it also likely signified that God was marking His people as “pure” and not targets of the judgment God was about to deal out to the Egyptians. 

David also mentions hyssop in Psalm 51:7: “Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow.” David does not refer to physical cleansing—rather, he is asking God to cleanse him spiritually as he confesses his sin.  David’s son, Solomon, famous for his God-given wisdom, spoke of hyssop in his teachings (1 Kings 4:29-34).  Hyssop also appears at Jesus’ crucifixion, when the Roman soldiers offered Jesus a drink of wine vinegar on a sponge at the end of a stalk of hyssop (John 19:28–30). 

This was, in fact, Jesus’ last act before He declared His work on earth finished and gave up His spirit. While the hyssop stalk may have been used for purely practical purposes (i.e., it was long enough to reach to Jesus’ mouth as He hung on the cross), it is interesting that that particular plant was chosen. It is possible that God meant this as a picture of purification, as Jesus bought our forgiveness with His sacrifice. Just as in the Old Testament blood and hyssop purified a defiled person, so Jesus’ shed blood purifies us from the defilement of our sin.



Hyssop is an herbaceous plant, scientifically known as Hyssopus officinalis, that is widely sought after for its potential medical applications.   Hyssop plants look like a smaller form of lavender, with spikes of blue flowers that smell slightly minty. Tea made from true hyssop has been used to help treat coughs, earaches, asthma, and bloating. Today, studies are beginning to back up some of these age-old folk remedies, showing that hyssop offers some impressive health benefits.  

The main components of hyssop oil include monoterpenes (cis-pinochamphone, trans-pinocamphone and beta-pinene) and sequiterpenes (germacrene and elemol); however, the chemical composition does vary depending on the plant’s growth stage when extracted.  The flavonoids present in hyssop oil provide beneficial antioxidant activity. An analysis published in the Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin was able to indicate that there are 20 compounds in hyssop oil, representing 99.9 percent of the oil’s makeup. Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid; myrtenylacetate, camphor, germacrene and spathulenol are the other main compounds that were found. 

The findings of this chemical breakdown revealed that hyssop possesses valuable high-antioxidant properties for culinary and medicinal use, especially because it serves as an antioxidant.   Due to the rich contents of the plant’s essential oil and the various active ingredients, including thujone, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, cineole, and other antioxidants, this plant can provide a number of soothing and therapeutic effects. Hyssop is used for digestive and intestinal problems. Hyssop has been praised as a medicinal plant for centuries and is still in wide use today by herbalists and those seeking natural forms of treatment.

The genus Hyssopus has essential constituents which perform multiple actions. Its essential oil constituents possessed curative properties against cough, loss of appetite, fungal infection, spasmodic condition, and potent antimicrobial activities. The other in vivo actions are the sedative effects, plasma membrane relaxation, and cytotoxic activity. Biological activities and aroma from essential oil suggest its use as a potential antioxidant food ingredient and other pharmaceutical drugs.

Hyssop has many potential health benefits. Hyssop is considered a natural expectorant, which may help support a healthy upper respiratory system. It is also believed to help temporarily relieve the symptoms of an upset stomach by relieving gas and supporting normal bowel movements. Other medicinal uses for hyssop have included intestinal problems such as liver and gallbladder conditions, intestinal pain, and loss of appetite. It has been used for respiratory problems such as coughs, the common cold, respiratory infections, sore throat, and asthma. In addition, people have used hyssop for urinary tract infections, poor circulation, menstrual discomfort, and skin conditions, such as burns, bruises, and frostbite. However, there are not enough human clinical studies to confirm if hyssop has an effect on any of these health conditions. 

This herb can be used for the treatment of a number of health conditions, including eliminating parasites, relieving premenstrual syndrome symptoms, and lowering blood pressure, among others:

Here are more specific details about the health benefits of the Bible herb known as hyssop:

1. Helps Respiratory Conditions

2. Fights Parasites

3. Fights Infections

4. Increases Circulation

5. Relieves Muscle Pain and Spasms

6. Supports Healthy Immune Response

7. Helps Digestion

8. Promotes Skin Health

9. Blood Sugar Benefits 

10. May Reduce Risk of Cancer

11.  May Reduce Inflammation



A review on Hyssopus officinalis L.: Composition and biological activities.  Fatemeh Fathiazad* and Sanaz Hamedeyazdan. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Article Number - 45795AD29188.   Vol.5(17), pp. 1959 - 1966 , November 2011.

Ghasempour M, Hosseini M, Soltani-Zangbar MS, Motavalli R, Aghebati-Maleki L, Dolati S, Mehdizadeh A, Yousefi M, Ahmadian Heris J. The impact of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extract on activation of endosomal toll like receptors and their downstream signaling pathways. BMC Res Notes. 2022 Dec 12;15(1):366. doi: 10.1186/s13104-022-06253-3. PMID: 36503515; PMCID: PMC9742021.

Sharifi-Rad J, Quispe C, Kumar M, Akram M, Amin M, Iqbal M, Koirala N, Sytar O, Kregiel D, Nicola S, Ertani A, Victoriano M, Khosravi-Dehaghi N, Martorell M, Alshehri MM, Butnariu M, Pentea M, Rotariu LS, Calina D, Cruz-Martins N, Cho WC. Hyssopus Essential Oil: An Update of Its Phytochemistry, Biological Activities, and Safety Profile. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 Jan 13;2022:8442734. doi: 10.1155/2022/8442734. PMID: 35069979; PMCID: PMC8776447.

LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012–. Hyssop. 2018 Mar 30. PMID: 31643710.  

Zielinska S, Matkowski A. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of aromatic and medicinal plants from the genus Agastache (Lamiaceae). Phytochemistry Reviews. 2014;13:391-416. doi:10.1007%2Fs11101-014-9349-1

Mićović T, Topalović D, Živković L, et al. Antioxidant, Antigenotoxic and Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Hyssopus officinalis L. Subsp. aristatus (Godr.) Nyman (Lamiaceae). Plants (Basel). 2021;10(4):711. Published 2021 Apr 7. doi:10.3390/plants10040711.

Paun G, Litescu SC, Neagu E, Tache A, Lucian Radu G. Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and a-chymotrypsin. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2014 Feb;29(1):28-34. doi:10.3109/14756366.2012.749399

Vlase L, Benedec D, Hanganu D, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Molecules. 2014 Apr 28;19(5):5490-507. doi:10.3390/molecules19055490

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.